RACY LENTIL PATÉ

Racy Lentil Paté2020-01-17T22:15:24+00:00

Ingredients:

  • 1½ cups brown or puy (baby green) lentils, soaked in:
  • 4½ cups filtered water
  • 1 tsp. Digestive Seeds
  • 6 inch strip kombu, rinsed and chopped
  • 1 tsp. ginger root, grated
  • 3 fresh jalapenos, de-seeded and minced finely
  • 6 fresh shiitakes, sliced
  • 1 Tbsp. “dark roasted chili” powder (Co-Op)
  • 1½ cups walnuts
  • 1 Tbsp. Braggs Liquid Aminos or 2 tsp. miso
  • Fresh ground black pepper to taste
  • Fresh dill or parsley sprigs

Directions:

In a medium-sized pot, combine lentils, water and the next 6 ingredients. Bring to a boil, reduce heat, cover, and simmer for 2 hours until soft.

Meanwhile, dry-roast the walnuts and set them aside to cool completely. Then finely chop or dry-grind the walnuts in a blender, to yield approximately 1 cup.

When the lentils are soft, add:

Either Braggs and cook for 20 minutes more

Or 2 tsp. miso and gently stir, off the heat.

Cool lentils covered in pot 15 minutes.

Combine lentil mixture with finely chopped walnuts.  Add plenty of fresh pepper.  Adjust seasonings, and press lentil paté into a shallow bowl or serving dish.

Garnish with dill or parsley. Serve with crackers, vegetable sticks, or steamed vegetables.

Racy Lentil Paté

Health Benefits of Ingredients

Constipation is helped byLentils:

For CONSTIPATION, lentils provide both soluble and insoluble fiber making them an excellent digestive regulator helping to prevent constipation. There are many factors–including stress and hydration levels–that may affect constipation, but the most important is diet. Backed by numerous studies, the indisputable cause of constipation is lack of fiber in the diet. Fiber is only found in plant foods, so those that eat a Standard American Diet (SAD) based on animal foods and processed grains have very little natural fiber in their diet. By eating more meat and less fiber-rich food, you may develop a chronic cycle of constipation with food remaining in the digestive tract and producing an unhealthy bacterial imbalance. 1

Soluble fiber absorbs excess water in the colon, helping to regulate your system by forming a gel-like substance that attaches to bile–which carries cholesterol–and shepherds it out of the body.2 The soft or soluble fiber in lentils also helps to absorb waste products, which are potentially noxious if constipation leads to waste staying in the intestine for too long.

Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water thereby increasing stool bulk and providing roughage which allows the bowel muscles to more effectively move the food residue along. The muscles in our bowel walls normally contract and relax in a rhythmic fashion, known as peristalsis, which ferries food and then waste through the length of the digestive tract. Without enough fiber residue, the stool forming in the colon is too small or unformed for the bowel wall muscles to effectively move it. Fiber is essential for adequate transit of food materials.

Lentils are one of the most alkaline of protein sources, which is important for balancing the body’s pH level and promoting healthy bacterial growth in the colon. Lentils help combat the acidic environment of the digestive system–which can occur from eating processed foods high in sugar or fried foods. A good gut pH populated with healthy bacteria is important for proper nutrient absorption preventing constipation and many other digestive diseases, too.
In order to get the most digestive benefits from lentils nutrition, drink plenty of water so the fiber you consume has plenty of fluid to absorb.

References:

  1. Yang J, Wang H-P, Zhou L, Xu C-F. Effect of dietary fiber on constipation: A meta analysis. World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG. 2012;18(48):7378-7383. doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i48.7378.
  2. Stephen AM, Dahl WJ, Sieber GM, van Blaricom JA, Morgan DR. Effect of green lentils on colonic function, nitrogen balance, and serum lipids in healthy human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1995 62: 6 1261-7

Recommendation: A total fiber daily intake of at least 20-30 grams is recommended, with the majority coming from soluble fiber. A ½ cup of cooked lentils provides 8g of total fiber; 1g of soluble fiber.

Diabetes & Blood Sugar are helped by Lentils:

For DIABETES TYPE 2, all legumes including lentils help improve glycemia as part of a low-glycemic index diet and as an excellent source of soluble fiber, which has been well-documented in numerous studies to stabilize blood sugar. The fiber allows sugar to be absorbed from the gut at a gradual pace, preventing sudden jumps in blood glucose. At the same time, the complex carbohydrates in lentils provide a stable source of energy that prevents hypoglycemic drops in sugar levels, and helps maintain good, even stamina.

One of the first principles for the management of Type 2 diabetes is to set a glycemia or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) goal1 and legumes are a standout food to accomplish that goal. Eating more legumes (such as beans, chickpeas or lentils) as part of a low-glycemic index diet appears to improve glycemic control and reduce estimated coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), according to a report of a randomized controlled trial.2 Patients who ate legumes saw a reduction in their hemoglobin A1c values — a marker of average blood sugar, for a period of several weeks and also achieved modest reductions in body weight as well as drops in total cholesterol and blood pressure.

Although there is some debate among researchers as to the impact of the glycemic index on diabetics’ blood sugar, it has been proven that intensive glycemic control reduces the risk of microvascular complications of Type 2 diabetes.3

Studies of high fiber diets and blood sugar levels have shown the dramatic benefits provided by these high fiber foods. Researchers compared two groups of people with type 2 diabetes who were fed different amounts of high fiber foods. One group ate the standard American Diabetic diet, which contains with 24 grams of fiber/day, while the other group ate a diet containing 50 grams of fiber/day. Those who ate the diet higher in fiber had lower levels of both plasma glucose (blood sugar) and insulin (the hormone that helps blood sugar get into cells). The high fiber group also reduced their total cholesterol by nearly 7%, their triglyceride levels by 10.2% and their VLDL (Very Low Density Lipoprotein—the most dangerous form of cholesterol) levels by 12.5%.4

Lentils are high in vegetable protein and rich in both soluble and insoluble fiber. They are of special benefit in managing blood-sugar disorders since their high fiber content prevents blood sugar levels from rising rapidly after a meal so they provide steady, slow-burning protein energy. Fiber is a type of carbohydrate—like sugars and starches—which can be confusing for people who have diabetes since carbohydrates have a big impact on blood glucose. Because it’s not broken down by the human body, the fiber simply passes through your digestive system intact. This difference means that eating lentils rich in fiber is less likely to cause a spike in blood glucose levels. 4

Insoluble fiber keeps your digestive tract working well while soluble fiber can help lower your cholesterol level and improve blood glucose control. There are indications that only water-soluble fiber is active on plasma glucose and lipoprotein metabolism in humans making legumes an encouraging choice.

References:

  1. https://www.sevencountriesstudy.com/study-findings.
  2. Hertog, Michaël GL, et al. “Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study.” Archives of Internal Medicine 155.4 (1995): 381-386.
  3. Verhoef, Petra, Meir J. Stampfer, and Eric B. Rimm. “Folate and coronary heart disease.” Current Opinion in Lipidology 9.1 (1998): 17-22.
  4. Al-Delaimy, Wael K., et al. “Magnesium intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 23.1 (2004): 63-70.

Recommendation: Approximately 190 grams or 1 cup of cooked lentils per day.

Diabetes & Blood Sugar are helped by Walnuts:

For DIABETES TYPE 2: walnuts may help at-risk adults reduce their chances of developing Type 2 diabetes by improving blood vessel function. According to a Yale University study1 of subjects aged from 25 to 75 years old who all had several risk factors for Type 2 diabetes, including high blood sugar, blood pressure, or cholesterol; being overweight or having excess fat around the middle, researchers found that eating walnuts lowered LDL or “bad” cholesterol levels and improved blood vessel function–both risk factors associated with Type 2 diabetes. Compared to other nuts, walnuts have higher amounts of alpha-linolenic acid. Alpha-linolenic acid is a type of omega-3 fatty acid–similar to fish oil–but found in plants and walnut oils. Alpha-linolenic acid may help protect against plaque formation in arteries.

A walnut-enriched diet improves endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in Type 2 diabetic individuals, suggesting a potential reduction in overall cardiac risk. Although intervention studies with nuts have not demonstrated considerable benefits for diabetic individuals in terms of long- or short-term glycemic control, nuts may help diabetic individuals depress postprandial glycemia, reduce postprandial oxidative stress, and improve blood lipid profiles. Fasting insulin levels and blood lipid profiles also showed marked improvement with walnut consumption.2,3 Additionally, although walnuts are high in calories, the nuts were not associated with weight gain during the study.

L-arginine, an amino acid in walnuts, is converted to nitric oxide which is a vasodilator. L-arginine helps to regulate vascular tone and improve insulin resistance in DIABETES. In a recent study published in the Journal of Endocrinology4, it was found that arginine stimulates the secretion of insulin and prevents the continued destruction of beta cells in the pancreas, an important finding for those with Type II diabetes.

Walnuts have demonstrated a clear ability to moderate BLOOD SUGAR. Managing isn’t usually a simple matter of cutting out a few specific foods, it’s about understanding how foods affect your blood sugar and eating them in combinations that result in better blood glucose and better overall health. For example, L-arginine helps synthesize creatine, which plays an important role in the energy metabolism of cells. It leads to an improved burning of foods like fats and proteins, and therefore increases the energy turnover of the body. Since L-arginine also supports the release and effect of insulin, it can contribute to the regulation of BLOOD SUGAR and blood fat levels. A 2011 study performed at the University of Toronto2 focused specifically on the relationship of nut consumption to blood sugar. It demonstrated that consuming 75 grams of nuts each day, or just under 3 ounces, reduced hemoglobin A1C levels by 0.21 percent–considered a noteworthy reduction. Walnuts also have the highest level of antioxidants, ranking from 2 to 15 times as strong as vitamin E. Unlike many other types of nuts, walnuts are generally eaten raw, preventing the reduction in antioxidant quality that typically accompanies roasting.

{Loaded with fiber and protein, tree nuts like walnuts have shown the ability to lower and stabilize blood sugar levels in people with Type 2 diabetes. This seemed like a pretty weak study and I couldn’t find much to back it up. Blanco Mejia S, Kendall CWC, Viguiliouk E, et al

Effect of tree nuts on metabolic syndrome criteria: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

BMJ Open 2014;4:e004660. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004660 the fiber in walnuts is highly beneficial for stabilizing blood sugar, lowering excessive glucose levels, and slowing the absorption of carbohydrates to enter the blood stream at a steady pace….etc….

References:

  1. Njike VY, Ayettey R, Petraro P, et al. Walnut ingestion in adults at risk for diabetes: effects on body composition, diet quality, and cardiac risk measures. BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care 2015;3:e000115. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2015-000115
  2. Jenkins DJ, Hu FB, Tapsell LC, Josse AR, Kendall CW Possible benefit of nuts in type 2 diabetes. J Nutr 2008; 138: 1752S– 1756S
  3. Tapsell, Linda C;Gillen, Lynda J;Patch, Craig S;Batterham, Marijka;et al. Including Walnuts in a Low-Fat/Modified-Fat Diet Improves HDL Cholesterol-to-total Cholesterol Ratios in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care; Dec 2004; 27, 12; ProQuest Central pg. 2777
  4. Krause M et al.: Arginine is essential for pancreatic beta-cell functional integrity, metabolism and defence from inflammatory challenge; J Endocrinol. 2011 Jul 22

Recommendation: 75 grams of nuts each day, or just under 3 ounces.

High Cholesterol & Lipids are helped by Lentils:

For HIGH CHOLESTEROL & LIPIDS, lentils, an easily-digested legume, are a good source of cholesterol-lowering fiber. Not only do lentils help lower cholesterol, their high fiber content also benefits blood sugar by preventing sugar levels from rising rapidly after a meal. Lentils are an excellent source of molybdenum and folate, copper, phosphorus and manganese. Additionally they are a good source of iron, protein, vitamin B1, pantothenic acid, zinc, potassium and vitamin B6—all with virtually no fat. One cup of cooked lentils contains just 230 calories.

Lentils are believed to be one of the world’s oldest crops dating back to Neolithic times and have been a staple of Middle Eastern and Indian cuisine for thousands of years. Lentils are a standout source of insoluble and soluble fiber. Soluble fiber forms a gel-like substance in the digestive tract that attaches to bile which carries cholesterol and shepherds it out of the body.

The extensive Seven Countries Study followed more than 16,000 men in the U.S., Finland, The Netherlands, Italy, former Yugoslavia, Greece, and Japan for 25 years examining food intake patterns and risk of death from coronary heart disease. This was the first major study to investigate diet and lifestyle along with other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, across contrasting countries and cultures and over an extended period of time. Researchers concluded that legumes were associated with a significant 82% reduction in risk of death from heart disease. Typical food patterns were: higher consumption of dairy products in Northern Europe; higher consumption of meat in the U.S.; higher consumption of vegetables, legumes, fish, and wine in Southern Europe; and higher consumption of cereals, soy products, and fish in Japan. These cross-cultural analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that dietary patterns are important determinants of differences in population CHD death rates, and confirm the opposite effects on apparent risk of animal and vegetable foods.

This pioneering cross-cultural study became the genesis for decades of research into the effect of diet and illness. Another long-term study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine found that legumes such as lentils help prevent heart disease. Almost 10,000 American adults participated in this study and were followed for 19 years. People eating 21 grams of fiber per day had 12% less coronary heart disease compared to those eating only 5 grams daily. Those eating the most water-soluble dietary fiber enjoyed an even better 15% reduction in risk of CHD.2

As mentioned above, lentils supply good amounts of folate which helps lower levels of homocysteine, an amino acid produced by the body in a metabolic process called the methylation cycle. Left unchecked, high levels of homocysteine in the bloodstream can damage artery walls, a serious risk factor for heart disease. Folate, along with vitamins B6 (also in lentils) and B12, converts homocysteine into harmless cysteine or methionine, protecting blood vessel linings.3

Lentils are rich in magnesium, also known as ‘nature’s calcium channel blocker.’ Magnesium has a relaxing effect on the tiny muscles in artery walls, which lowers blood pressure, reduces resistance, and improves the flow of blood, oxygen, and nutrients to all tissues throughout the body. Research has found that a deficiency of magnesium increases the risk of heart attack; also lack of magnesium immediately following a heart attack promotes free radical injury to heart muscle.4

Recommendation: Approximately 190 g per day (1 cup cooked lentils) seems to contribute usefully to a low-GI diet and reduce CHD risk through a reduction in BP.

High Cholesterol & Lipids are helped by Walnuts:

For HIGH CHOLESTEROL & LIPIDS, walnuts have been thoroughly researched for their benefits for the heart and circulatory system. They are unique among nuts in that they are primarily composed of polyunsaturated fat (13 grams per ounce), which includes alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the plant-based omega-3 fatty acid. They are the only nut to contain a significant amount of ALA with 2.5 grams per one ounce serving. ALA has been shown to be effective at ameliorating symptoms in diseases with an underlying oxidative stress component. High blood cholesterol is a major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor and is responsive to diet modifications. In addition to high blood cholesterol, there is increasing evidence that supports the independent role of oxidized lipids and lipoproteins, chiefly oxidized low-density lipoproteins (Ox-LDL), in the development of CVD. Lowering total blood cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) and raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels is the most desirable metabolic state for maximum protection against CVD.1

Emerging evidence suggests that a diet rich in walnuts may help reduce levels of “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and improve general heart health. It appears that walnuts particularly help our “vascular reactivity,” which is the ability of blood vessels to open or constrict in response to various stimuli in a healthy manner. For this to happen well, we need ample antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients and inflammation-regulating molecules, balanced blood composition, and proper composition and flexibility in our blood vessel walls.

Numerous studies have shown that diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can significantly reduce blood LDL cholesterol levels, decrease the total cholesterol–to–HDL cholesterol ratio, and help achieve optimal fat consumption without adverse effects on total fat or energy intake Walnuts have a higher content of PUFAs than do other nuts, including α-linolenic acid, which may give walnuts additional antiatherogenic properties.

In yet another study, participants were asked to add a handful of walnuts to their daily diet, representing 15 percent of their daily calorie intake. After 1 year, the participants on the walnut diet had significantly lower levels of LDL cholesterol than those consuming their usual diet.2

Walnuts are loaded with folate, vitamin E, and lots of good fats. A natural concern with this calorie-laden nut may be based in how to reap its benefits without corresponding weight gain. Researchers at Yale University Prevention Research Center addressed this concern while determining if eating walnuts daily could help people at risk for diabetes control their cholesterol and blood sugar. The researchers found that participants’ total and LDL (bad) cholesterol levels fell significantly when they ate walnuts every day. Moreover, their weight remained stable whether or not they reduced other calories. In addition, their overall diets were healthier when they were eating walnuts.3

Part of this benefit may be due to studies showing that walnuts improved the endothelial function of the blood vessels — a measure of how well vessels are able to open and increase blood flow.  The flow-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery improved significantly from baseline when subjects consumed a walnut-enriched diet and beneficial trends in systolic blood pressure reduction were seen.4

Lastly, plant-based foods contain dietary fiber, which your body can’t digest. The majority of the fiber in walnuts is insoluble, but they do contain trace amounts of soluble fiber as well. A 1-ounce serving of walnuts contains about 2 grams of fiber. This is about half the entire carbohydrate content of these nuts. The soluble fiber in walnuts may also work in concert with the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats to lower cholesterol levels and help prevent cardiovascular disease.

References:

  1.  Evidence for Using Alpha-Lipoic Acid in Reducing Lipoprotein and Inflammatory Related Atherosclerotic Risk http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/1939…
  2. Ros E, Rajaram S, Sala-Vila A, et al. Effect of a 1-Year Walnut Supplementation on Blood Lipids among Older Individuals: Findings from the Walnuts and Healthy Aging (WAHA) study [abstract]. FASEB J. 2016;30(Supp 1)293.4. Available at: http://www.fasebj.org/content/…
  3. Njike VY, Ayettey R, Petraro P, et al. Walnut ingestion in adults at risk for diabetes: effects on body composition, diet quality, and cardiac risk measures. BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care 2015;3:e000115. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2015-000115.
  4. David L Katz, Anna Davidhi, Yingying Ma, Yasemin Kavak, Lauren Bifulco, Valentine Yanchou Njike. Effects of Walnuts on Endothelial Function in Overweight Adults with Visceral Obesity: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Trial. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2012; 31 (6): 415 DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2012.10720468

Recommendation: Approximately 2 ounces of raw walnuts per day contributes to significantly lower levels of LDL without weight gain.